# Hello World Agent Service

This section gives a general, introductory overview of the library and a high-level view of the main elements that make an agent service. The goal is to provide a global understanding on the development process and the relationship between the main components of the stack.

We start with a simple "Hello World" example service, and we will add progressively more functionality to it. The goal is to come up with a service composed of four agents. The functionality of this service will be extremely simple. Namely, each agent will output the following message to its local console:

"Agent $i$ in period $j$ says: Hello World!"

More concretely, we divide the timeline into periods, and within each period, only one designated agent will print the message. The other agents will print nothing. Think of a period as an interval where the service carries out an iteration of its intended functionality.

The architecture of this agent service, albeit simple, features four agents that are coordinated through a consensus gadget.

Important

Every agent service has an associated consensus gadget:

• The consensus gadget is the component that makes possible for the agents to synchronise data. This allows them to, e.g. reach agreement on certain actions or reconcile information.

• Anything happening at the consensus network level is completely abstracted away so that developers simple consume it in their services. An application run by the agent service can be thought and developed as a single "virtual" application.

This is what the service would look like in all its glory:

Even though printing "Hello World" on their local console is far from being an exciting functionality, this example shows a number of non-trivial elements that are key components in an agent service:

• The service defines a sequence of "atomic," well-defined actions, whose execution in the appropriate order achieves the intended functionality.
• Agents have to interact with each other to execute each of those actions, and reach a consensus on a number of decisions at certain moments (e.g., which is the agent that prints the message in each period).
• Agents are also allowed to execute actions on their own. In this simple example it just consists of printing a local message.
• Agents have to use a global store for persistent data (e.g., which was the last agent that printed the message).
• Finally, the application can progress even if some agent is faulty or malicious (up to a certain threshold of malicious agents).

In this toy example we assume that the agent that is charge of printing the message locally will do so (i.e. it will behave honestly). When this printing functionality is replaced by other critical operations, like sending a transaction to a blockchain, it is not enough with trusting that the agent will behave honestly, and further security and cryptographic mechanisms will be required.

The main questions that we try to answer at this point are:

• What are the main elements of the Open Autonomy framework to implement an agent service?
• How do agents interact with the different components in an agent service?

## The Finite State Machine of an Agent Service

The first step when designing an agent service is to divide the intended functionality into "atomic" steps. For example, for the Hello World service, we identify these steps as

1. Each agent registers to the service.
2. [If Step 1 OK] Agents select which is the next agent to print the message. We call this agent the keeper.
3. [If Step 2 OK] The keeper prints the message "Hello World" on its local console.
4. Pause for a while and go to Step 2.

The reader may have identified Steps 2 and 3 beforehand. Step 1 is a requirement in each agent service: it is simply a preliminary stage where each agent commits to participate actively in the service. Step 4, on the other hand is also a standard step in services that "loop", like the Hello World service. It serves as a "sleep" block of the agent service.

Graphically, the sequence of atomic steps of the Hello Word service functionality can be seen as

This sequence diagram of operations can be interpreted as a finite state machine (FSM) that defines the service. Ignoring network latency and delays caused by the underlying consensus gadget, it can be considered that at any given time, all agents have the same view of the service FSM, and all agents execute the same transitions. This is one of the key concepts of the Open Autonomy framework.

Note

FSMs are in fact an abstract model of computation. An FSM defines

The state-transition function indicates how to move from a given state once an event has been received. At any timepoint, an FSM can only be located at a given state (current state). You can find a brief introduction about FSMs on Wikipedia, but for our purposes it is enough to understand the three bullet points above.

Note that, according to the most the rigorous definition of an FSM, besides the current state, the FSM "has no other memory." That is, it does not know how it arrived at a given state. However, in order to develop useful agent services, the Open Autonomy framework equips these FSMs with persistent storage.

Each agent runs internally a process or application that implements the service FSM, processes events and transits to new states according to the state-transition function. The component that encapsulates this functionality is an agent skill. As its name suggests, a skill is some sort of "knowledge" that the agent possesses.

Let us call hello_world_abcithe skill that encapsulates the Hello World functionality (the reason for the suffix abci will be explained below). A zoom on an agent would look like this:

Observe that Agent 2 has three additional skills. In fact, an agent can have one or multiple skills, in addition to several other components. Skills can implement a variety of functionalities, not only those that can be captured by FSMs.

Important

All agents in an agent service are implemented by the same codebase. The codebase implementing an agent is called a canonical agent, whereas each of the actual instances is called agent instance, or simply agent for short. Each agent instance is then parameterized with their own set of keys, addresses and other required attributes.

## Transitioning through the FSM

But how exactly does an agent transition through the FSM? That is, how are the events generated, and how are they received?

To answer this question, let us focus on a concrete state, namely, the SelectKeeper state. Several things are expected when the service is at this point.

A high level view of what occurs is as follows:

1. Prepare the vote. Each agent determines what agent it wishes to vote for as the new keeper. Since there is the need to reach an agreement, we consider that each agent wants to vote for "Agent $M\pmod 4+1$," where $M$ is the value of the current period. Thus, the agent prepares an appropriate payload that contains that information.

2. Send the vote. The hello_world_abci skill has a component (Behaviour) that is in charge of casting the vote to the consensus gadget.

3. The consensus gadget reads the agents' outputs, and ensures that the collection of responses observed is consistent. The gadget takes the responsibility of executing the consensus algorithm, which is abstracted away to the developer of the agent service.

• Note that this does not mean that the consensus gadget ensures that all the agents vote the same. Rather, it means that all the agents reach an agreement on what vote was sent by each of them.

4. Once the consensus phase is finished (and stored in a temporary blockchain maintained by the agents), each agent is notified with the corresponding information via an interface called ABCI (this is why we called the skill hello_world_abci).

5. A certain skill component, called Round, receives and processes this information. If strictly more than $2/3$ of the agents voted for a certain keeper, then the agent records this result persistently to be used in future phases of the service. After finalizing all this processing, the Round skill component outputs the event that indicates the success of the expected actions at that state.

6. The event cast in the previous step is received by the component that actually manages the service FSM (AbciApp). This component processes the event according to the state-transition function and moves the current state of the FSM appropriately.

Important

As illustrated by the example above, there are a number of components from a skill in the Open Autonomy framework that the developer needs to define in order to build an agent service. More concretely, these are:

• AbciApp: The component that defines the FSM itself and the transitions between states.
• Rounds: The components that process the input from the consensus gadget and outputs the appropriate events to make the next transition. There must be exactly one round per FSM state.
• Behaviours: The components that execute the proactive action expected at each state: e.g. cast a vote for a keeper, print a message on screen, execute a transaction on a blockchain, etc. There must be one behaviour per FSM state.
• Payloads: Associated to each behaviour. They define the contents of the transaction of the corresponding behaviour.
• RoundBehaviour: This can be seen as the main class of the skill, which aggregates the AbciApp and ensures to establish a one-to-one relationship between the rounds and behaviours associated to each state of the FSM.

Note

There are several items which are called after the interface that connects with the consensus gadget, namely the Application Blockchain Interface (ABCI). In case you are not familiar with this, it is enough to know that it is an interface that abstracts away the protocol executed at the consensus gadget, and it produces callbacks to the skill when relevant events occur (e.g. agreement on a block). You can read more about the ABCI here.

At this point, the walk-through of a single transition from one state of the FSM, has essentially introduced the main components of an agent and the main interactions that occur in an agent service. It is important that the developer keeps these concepts in mind, since executions of further state transitions can be easily mapped with what has been presented here so far.

## Executing the Main Functionality

At this point, the service has only transitioned to a new state on its FSM. But, what would happen in an actual execution of the service functionality?

Mimicking the steps that occurred in the previous state, it is not difficult to see that this is what would actually happen:

1. Upon entering the PrintMessage state, the associated behaviour, say PrintMessageBehaviour, will be in charge of executing the appropriate functionality. For Agent 2, it will be printing the celebrated message "Agent 2 says: Hello World". The rest of the agents simply do nothing.
2. A dummy message (e.g., a constant value "Task completed") is sent by all the agents.
3. The consensus gadget executes its protocol on the inputs received from the agents.
4. The result of the consensus is forwarded to all the agents through ABCI.
5. The PrintMessageRound receives a callback originating from the consensus gadget. PrintMessageRound verifies that all agents have responded, and it will then cast the DONE event.
6. The AbciApp takes over and processes the event DONE, and moves the current state of the FSM to the next state, ResetAndPause.

As a result, we have finished a "happy path" of execution of the FSM, concluding with the expected output:

Note

In Step 3 of the main functionality (printing value on screen locally), we have stipulated that all agents respond with a dummy constant value. We remark that not all states of the Hello World FSM require that all agents respond. In this example, we could simply have required that the keeper sends the "Task completed" message, and the remaining agents would wait for that single message.

Other states might have different waiting conditions, for instance

• wait that all agents respond with a different value, or
• wait that more than a threshold of agents respond with the same value.

When the waiting condition is not met during a certain time interval, a special timeout event is generated by the Round, and the developer is in charge of defining how the FSM will transit in that case.

## Bird's Eye View

As a summary, find below an image which shows the main components of the agent and the skill related to the Hello World agent service presented in this overview. Of course, this is by no means the complete picture of what is inside an agent, but it should give a good intuition of what are the main elements that play a role in any agent service and how they interact.

## Coding the Hello World! Agent Service: A Primer

So far, we have given a conceptual description of the Hello World agent service. As we have seen, there are a number of components that a developer needs to focus on in order to fully define the service.

The objective of what follows next is to explore what are the main steps to code and get the service running. Note that the complete code for the example can be found in

• packages/valory/agents/hello_world: the Hello World agent,
• packages/valory/skills/hello_world_abci: the hello_world_abci skill.

### Coding the Agent

Agents are defined through the Open AEA library as YAML files, which specify what components the agent made of, together with some configuration parameters. Agents components can be, for example, connections, contracts, protocols or skills. We refer to the Open AEA documentation for the complete details, although the reader might already have some intuition about their meaning.

This is an excerpt of the /agents/hello_world/aea-config.yaml file:

# ...
connections:
- valory/abci:0.1.0:<ipfs_hash>
- valory/http_client:0.1.0:<ipfs_hash>
- valory/p2p_libp2p_client:0.1.0:<ipfs_hash>
contracts: []
protocols:
- open_aea/signing:1.0.0:<ipfs_hash>
- valory/abci:0.1.0:<ipfs_hash>
- valory/http:1.0.0:<ipfs_hash>
skills:
- valory/abstract_abci:0.1.0:<ipfs_hash>
- valory/abstract_round_abci:0.1.0:<ipfs_hash>
- valory/hello_world_abci:0.1.0:<ipfs_hash>
# ...


It is mandatory that all agents that will be part of an agent service have the abci connection, the abci protocol, as well as the abstract_abci and abstract_round_abci skills. These are the essential components that allow to interact with the consensus gadget, and contain helper and base classes that simplify the process of building the code for the skill.

Additionally, the agent can use other connections, protocols or skills, depending of its particular needs. In the example, the http_client connection and the http protocol allows the agent to interact with HTTP servers (although we are not using it in this service). Similarly, you can add the ledger connection and the ledger_api protocol in case the agent needs to interact with a blockchain.

Note that the agent also includes the hello_world_abci skill, which is the one that we need to code for this example. Except that, there is no more to code to write for the agent. The Open AEA library will be in charge of reading this configuration file and execute its skills accordingly.

Note that although it is possible to develop your own protocols and connections, the Open AEA framework provides a number of typical ones which can be reused. Therefore, it is usual that the developer focuses most of its programming efforts in coding the particular skill(s) for their new agent.

### Coding the Skill

Recall that the skill needs to define the AbciApp; Rounds, Behaviours and Payloads associated to each state of the FSM; and the main skill class RoundBehaviour. Let's look how each of these objects are implemented. The files referenced below are all placed within packages/valory/skills/hello_world_abci:

rounds.py: This file defines both the Rounds and the AbciApp class. This is how the printing round (PrintMessageRound) inherits from the stack classes:

Note that the HelloWorldABCIAbstractRound is merely a convenience class defined in the same file. The class CollectDifferentUntilAllRound is a helper class for rounds that expect that each agent sends a different message. In this case, the message to be sent is the agent printed by each agent, which will be obviously different for each agent (one of them will be the celebrated 'Hello World' message, and the others will be 'empty' messages). Other helper classes exist within the stack to account for rounds that expect agents to agree on a common value.

Since most of the logic is already implemented in the base classes, the programmer only needs to define a few parameters and methods within the Round. Most notably, the method end_block, which is triggered when the ABCI notifies the end of a block in the consensus gadget:

class PrintMessageRound(CollectDifferentUntilAllRound, HelloWorldABCIAbstractRound):

# ...

def end_block(self) -> Optional[Tuple[BaseSynchronizedData, Event]]:
"""Process the end of the block."""
if self.collection_threshold_reached:
synchronized_data = self.synchronized_data.update(
participants=self.collection,
all_participants=self.collection,
synchronized_data_class=SynchronizedData,
)
return synchronized_data, Event.DONE
return None


The method updates a number of variables collected at that point, and returns the appropriate event (DONE) so that the AbciApp can process and transit to the next round.

Observe that the RegistrationRound is very similar to the PrintMessageRound, as it simply has to collect the different addresses that each agent sends.

After having defined the Rounds, the HelloWorldAbciApp does not have much mystery. It simply defines the transitions from one state to another in the FSM, arranged as Python dictionaries. For example,

SelectKeeperRound: {
Event.DONE: PrintMessageRound,
Event.ROUND_TIMEOUT: RegistrationRound,
Event.NO_MAJORITY: RegistrationRound,
},


denotes the three possible transitions from the SelectKeeperRound to the corresponding Rounds, according to the FSM depicted above.

behaviours.py: This file defines the Behaviours, which encode the proactive actions occurring at each state of the FSM. The class diagram for the PrintMessageBehaviour is as follows:

Again, the HelloWorldABCIBaseBehaviour is a convenience class, and the upper class in the hierarchy are abstract classes from the stack that facilitate re-usability of code when implementing the Behaviour. An excerpt of the PrintMessageBehaviour code is:

class PrintMessageBehaviour(HelloWorldABCIBaseBehaviour, ABC):
"""Prints the celebrated 'HELLO WORLD!' message."""

behaviour_id = "print_message"
matching_round = PrintMessageRound

def async_act(self) -> Generator:
"""
Do the action.

Steps:
- Determine if this agent is the current keeper agent.
- Print the appropriate to the local console.
- Send the transaction with the printed message and wait for it to be mined.
- Wait until ABCI application transitions to the next round.
- Go to the next behaviour (set done event).
"""

if (
):
printed_message += "HELLO WORLD!"
else:
printed_message += ":|"

print(printed_message)
self.context.logger.info(f"printed_message={printed_message}")

with self.context.benchmark_tool.measure(self.behaviour_id).consensus():
yield from self.wait_until_round_end()

self.set_done()


Let us remark a number of noteworthy points from this code:

1. The matching_round variable must be set to the corresponding Round.
2. Within async_act(), The action must be executed (in this case, print 'Hello World' sequentially). Note how the agent reads the context and synchronized_data.period_count to determine if it is the keeper agent.
3. After the action has been executed, the agent must prepare the Payload associated with this state. The payload can be anything that other agents might find useful for the action in this or future states. In this case, we simply send the message printed to the console.
4. The agent must send the Payload, which the consensus gadget will be in charge of synchronizing with all the agents.
5. The agent must wait until the consensus gadgets finishes its work, and mark the state as 'done'.

Steps 3, 4, 5 above are common for all the Behaviours in the agent service skills.

Once all the Behaviours are defined, it is time to define the RoundBehaviour class. This class follows a quite standard structure in all the agent services, and the reader can easily infer what is it from the source code:

class HelloWorldRoundBehaviour(AbstractRoundBehaviour):
"""This behaviour manages the consensus stages for the Hello World abci app."""

initial_behaviour_cls = RegistrationBehaviour
abci_app_cls = HelloWorldAbciApp  # type: ignore
behaviours: Set[Type[HelloWorldABCIBaseBehaviour]] = {  # type: ignore
RegistrationBehaviour,  # type: ignore
SelectKeeperBehaviour,  # type: ignore
PrintMessageBehaviour,  # type: ignore
ResetAndPauseBehaviour,  # type: ignore
}


payloads.py: This file defines the payloads associated to the consensus engine for each of the states. Payload classes are mostly used to encapsulate data values, and carry almost no business logic. Consider for instance the payload associated to the PrintMessageBehaviour:

class PrintMessagePayload(BaseHelloWorldAbciPayload):
"""Represent a transaction payload of type 'randomness'."""

transaction_type = TransactionType.PRINT_MESSAGE

def __init__(self, sender: str, message: str, **kwargs: Any) -> None:

:param sender: the sender (Ethereum) address
:param message: the message printed by the agent
:param kwargs: the keyword arguments
"""
super().__init__(sender, **kwargs)
self._message = message

@property
def message(self) -> str:
"""Get the message"""
return self._message

@property
def data(self) -> Dict:
"""Get the data."""
return dict(message=self._message)


Other required components. There are a number of extra files which define other components required by the agent that we have not addressed so far. To conclude this section, let us briefly describe the purposes of each one, and we invite you to take a look at the source code:

• skill.yaml: This is the skill specification file. Similarly to the agent configuration file, it defines the components (e.g. protocols, connections) required by the skill, as well as a number of configuration parameters.
• handlers.py: Defines the Handlers (implementing reactive actions) used by the skill. It is mandatory that the skill associated to an agent service implements a handler inherited from the ABCIRoundHandler. Other handlers are required according to the actions that the skill is performing (e.g., interacting with an HTTP server). As you can see by exploring the file, little coding is expected unless you need to implement a custom protocol.
• dialogues.py: It defines the dialogues associated to the protocols described in the skill.yaml configuration file. Again, not much coding is expected in most cases.
• models.py:
• fsm_specification.yaml: It contains a specification of the FSM in a simplified syntax. It is used for checking the consistency of the implementation, and it can be automatically generated using a script.